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WiFi 7 (Wi-Fi 7) is the next-generation Wi-Fi standard to be launched, also known as IEEE 802.11be or extremely high throughput (EHT). Based on Wi-Fi 6, Wi-Fi 7 introduces technologies such as 320 MHz bandwidth, 4096-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), multi-resource unit (RU), multi-link operation (MLO), enhanced multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO), and multi-access point (AP) coordination. Drawing on these cutting-edge technologies, Wi-Fi 7 delivers a higher data transmission rate and lower latency than Wi-Fi 6. Wi-Fi 7 is expected to support a throughput of up to 30 Gbps, about three times that of Wi-Fi 6.
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Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6), also called IP Next Generation (IPng), is a second-generation standard network layer protocol. The network layer where IPv6 resides provides connectionless data transmission services. IPv6 is designed by the IETF as an upgraded version of IPv4 and addresses many defects in IPv4. The most significant difference between IPv6 and IPv4 is that IP addresses are lengthened from 32 bits to 128 bits. IPv6 is more competitive in future markets with its simplified header, sufficient address space, hierarchical address structure, flexible extension header, and enhanced neighbor discovery mechanism.
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Telemetry is a next-generation network monitoring technology used to remotely collect data from devices at high speed. Devices periodically push device information to a collector, providing real-time, high-speed, and accurate network monitoring. To be specific, telemetry organizes data based on YANG models, encodes data in the Google Protocol Buffers (GPB) format, and transmits data through the Google Remote Procedure Call (gRPC) protocol. This improves data collection efficiency and facilitates intelligent interconnection. In traditional technologies, a collector and devices interact in pull mode by alternatively sending requests and responses. In contrast to these technologies, telemetry works in push mode and has the following advantages: - Proactively pushes data, reducing the pressure on devices. - Pushes data periodically in subseconds to avoid data inaccuracy caused by network delay. - Is capable to monitor a large number of network devices, improving network monitoring efficiency.
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Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a suite of protocols and services that provide security for IP networks. It is a widely used virtual private network (VPN) technology. IP packets lack effective security mechanisms and may be forged, stolen, or tampered with when being transmitted on a public network, such as the Internet. To solve this problem, the communicating parties establish an IPsec tunnel for encrypted transmission of IP packets. This ensures secure transmission of IP packets on an insecure network, such as the Internet.
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Segment Routing IPv6 (SRv6) is a next-generation IP bearer protocol that combines Segment Routing (SR) and IPv6. Utilizing existing IPv6 forwarding technology, SRv6 implements network programming through flexible IPv6 extension headers. SRv6 reduces the number of required protocol types, offers great extensibility and programmability, and meets the diversified requirements of more new services. It also provides high reliability and offers exciting cloud service application potential.
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CRC
Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is a common data transmission error detection technique commonly used in the data communication field. The transmit end calculates a check code for the data in a data frame based on a certain algorithm, appends the check code to the data frame, and sends the data frame to the receive end. The receive end verifies the correctness and integrity of the received data by repeating the calculation using the same algorithm.
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802.1X is a port-based network access control protocol. 802.1X authentication refers to 802.1X-based user authentication, which has been widely used on networks that have high requirements on information security.
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What Is QAM? How Does QAM Work?
QAM
Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is an advanced modulation scheme widely used in Wi-Fi communication systems. It combines phase modulation and amplitude modulation.
What Is FlexE? What Are the Application Scenarios of FlexE?
Flexible Ethernet (FlexE) is an interface technology used to implement service isolation and network slicing on a bearer network. By eliminating the one-to-one mapping between the MAC and PHY layers, FlexE implements flexible and refined management of interface resources. This not only solves the problem of imbalance between different customers' service requirements and network capabilities, but also meets the requirements of some industries for hard pipe isolation and on-demand bandwidth allocation.
What Is M-LAG? Why Do We Need M-LAG?
M-LAG technology provides inter-device link aggregation. M-LAG allows two access switches in the same state to perform inter-device link aggregation negotiation with a user-side device or server, improving link reliability from the card level to the device level. In addition, M-LAG devices can be upgraded separately to ensure the stability of service traffic. Therefore, M-LAG is widely used on data center networks.
What Is PLC-IoT? How Does PLC-IoT Work?
Power Line Communication Internet of Thing (PLC-IoT) is an HPLC/IEEE 1901.1-compliant mid-band Power Line Communication (PLC) technology launched for industrial IoT scenarios to transmit data over power lines on low-voltage networks. PLC-IoT eliminates the need to roll out additional communication lines and delivers reliable, secure, and efficient communication in the "last mile" of IoT.
What is QinQ? Why do we need QinQ?
802.1Q-in-802.1Q (QinQ), defined by IEEE 802.1ad, expands VLAN space by adding an additional 802.1Q tag to 802.1Q-tagged packets. It is also called VLAN stacking or double VLAN. QinQ is widely used on carriers' backbone networks. By encapsulating the VLAN tag of a private network in the VLAN tag of a public network, QinQ enables packets with double VLAN tags to traverse the backbone network (public network) of a carrier, so as to expand VLAN space and implement refined user management.
What Is IPv6 Enhanced? Origin of IPv6 Enhanced
IPv6 Enhanced uses the ultra-large address space of IPv6 and involves protocol innovations such as Segment Routing over IPv6 (SRv6), network slicing, In-situ Flow Information Telemetry (IFIT), and Bit Index Explicit Replication IPv6 Encapsulation (BIERv6), as well as technical innovations such as network analysis and automatic optimization. IPv6 Enhanced comprehensively improves IP network capabilities in terms of intelligence, security, ultra-high bandwidth, ubiquitous connectivity, deterministic quality, and low latency, helping establish ubiquitous intelligent IP connections and build a fully connected, intelligent world.
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